Revival of Nationalist Politics in a Globalized World
The concept of nationalism in the global politics is as old as the history of nations, it has seen many ups and downs over a period of history. Many a times in the history, its end was predicted, but it continued to exist in some part of the world.
……the process of globalization somehow created trouble for the states as well. Therefore, the phenomenon of nationalism has been revived in the global politics during the past few years.
After the end of the World War II, the world witnessed the rise of supranational institutions such as the United Nations, that believe in the international cooperation and highlight the concept of an international community. Apart from the United Nations, other institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) were established and it led to the economic interdependence of the world. However, at the end of the cold war, the phenomenon of globalization emerged in the global politics and the institutions such as European Union got the admiration from the world. The world admired the concept of a single currency, soft boarders and free market. Though the free market and single currency bring immense progress and development for the world and especially in the global north, but the process of globalization somehow created trouble for the states as well. Therefore, the phenomenon of nationalism has been revived in the global politics during the past few years.
….Over the past few years….victory of Donald Trump …Brexit..victory of Boris Johnson….Far Right Parties in Italy, Germany and Austria….Tayyip Erdogan….nationalist policies of the Japanese PM….victory of Narendra Modi….Valadmir Putin in Russia, Rodrigo Duterte in Phillippines and Volodymyr Zelensky in Ukraine….no region of the world is immune from the revival of nationalism.
Over the past few years the revival and the rise of nationalism is seen everywhere and in everything. The victory of Donald Trump revived the nationalism in the USA. Brexit and the recent victory of Boris Johnson as PM of UK, the success of Far Right Parties in Italy, Germany and Austria and the rise of Recep Tayyip Erdogan reintroduced the nationalism and nationalist policies in the most integrated region of the world, Europe. The nationalist policies of the Japanese PM, Shinzo Abe, welcomed the nationalism in the East Asia. The phenomenon reemerged in South Asia with the election victory of Narendra Modi in India. In addition to these regions and countries, some other states and leaders such as Valadmir Putin in Russia, Rodrigo Duterte in Phillippines and Volodymyr Zelensky in Ukraine adopted nationalist policies. Therefore, no region of the world is immune from the revival of nationalism. The recent wave of nationalism and nationalist policies will definitely affect the trends of global politics as the change in policies can be seen.
The globalized world and the liberal policies of the states welcomed the open borders, free market and tariff free trade. However, a shift has been already made in the policies, as different states are adopting the protectionist policies in trade and the borders do not welcome the refugees and immigrants as they welcomed them before. The United States, the champion of liberal ideas and free trade is advocating the ideas of “hard borders” and “protectionist policies in the trade”, under Trump administration. Trump administration announced earlier that a wall would be constructed on the US-Mexico border and a trade war has already been started between China and USA because of the protectionist policies of the administration.
…European states such as France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Austria are adopting the policies of hard borders…
The US is not alone in shifting the global trends towards nationalist politics. Europe, that is considered as most integrated region of the world is equally playing its role in welcoming the shift. The United Kingdom, the biggest democracy of the world, saw a referendum that resulted in Brexit. The other European states such as France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Austria are adopting the policies of hard borders and anti-immigrant policies, designed by their nationalist leaders. Apart from the anti-immigrant policies, the far right parties in France and the Netherlands are advocating their own style Brexit.
Therefore, in the near future the world would see the anti-immigrants policies, hard borders and protectionist policies in trade as visible trends in international politics.
In addition to Europe and America, Some countries of South Asia and East Asia saw the rise of nationalist leaders and their policies got changed accordingly. The relations between India and Pakistan got worse because of the nationalist narrative of PM, Modi and it even led to the limited war in February 2019. Therefore, in the near future the world would see the anti-immigrants policies, hard borders and protectionist policies in trade as visible trends in international politics.
The US withdrew from the Climate Change Accord because it wants to promote its coal industry.
Iran and North Korea withdrew from the NPT because they want to build nuclear weapons.
The nationalist leaders around the world are safeguarding the interest of their states and formulating the policies according to their interests. Guided by their national interests the states a withdraw from the institutions and treaties, though they are important for the well being of the international community. The US withdrew from the Climate Change Accord because it wants to promote its coal industry. Iran and North Korea withdrew from the NPT because they want to build nuclear weapons. The UK decided to withdraw from the European Union because of the nationalism. Therefore, the international institutions and organizations would be marginalized in the near future and the states would occupy more space as important international actor.
After the phenomenon of globalization, the national interest of the superpower and emerging powers, is not limited to their own territories rather they have interests in other states and regions as well.
Although the trends of the global politics and international relations would be affected by the emergence of nationalism, but the political outlook of the world would remain same. Though the nationalist ideology would prevail, but it would not lead to the major conflicts among the states, because the states are interdependent and the national interest of any state would not allow it to indulge in the conflict. After the phenomenon of globalization, the national interest of the superpower and emerging powers, is not limited to their own territories rather they have interests in other states and regions as well. Therefore, to safeguard their interests they would encourage peace and stability. International institutions and organizations would continue to exist but with a relatively marginalized role in international affairs. To sum up the debate it can be concluded that the nationalism has been there for ages, though it was marginalized after the phenomenon of globalization, but, it reemerged during the past few years and influenced and changed the trends and policies of the international politics, however the political outlook of the world has not been changed so far after the revival of nationalism.